THE T1MURID MONARCHS 221 to the Sultan of Egypt. Uzun Hasan, after the over- throw of Shah Jahan, defeated his son Hasan Ali, whom he captured and put to death together with every member of his family, in revenge for this barbarous insult. As mentioned above, Abu Said invaded Azerbaijan and was taken prisoner by Uzun Hasan, who, thanks to this dazzling success, became the virtual ruler of Persia. The death of this commanding personality occurred in 1478. He was succeeded by his son Yakub, who was poisoned after a reign of seven years. The empire was then broken up by domestic struggles for power, and way was made for the coming native dynasty of the Safavis. The Alliance of Uzun Hasan with Venice.—A fascinat- ing study is the part played by the republic of Venice in Asia not only in trade exploration but also in diplomacy.1 In Chapter LVII. we have seen that the efforts of Europe to induce the Il-Khans to attack Egypt and to rescue the Holy Land from the power of the Mamelukes resulted in little more than an* interesting exchange of embassies and was entirely barren of actual results. Some two centuries passed after the interchange of these embassies, and during that "period not' only had the Osmanli Turks become the great Moslem power, but by the capture of Constantinople in A.D. 1453, Christendom was threatened more seriously than at any previous period. The event, although it affected Europe deeply, excited no real enthusiasm ; for, as Aeneas Sylvius (who is quoted by Gibbon) wrote, <c Christendom is a body without a head ; a republic without laws or magistrates. The pope and the emperor may shine as lofty titles, as splendid images. . . . Every state has a separate prince, and every prince a separate interest." At this juncture, or a little later, Venice stepped into the breach and attempted, though with little success, to unite the powers of Christendom. Not content with this, she sought an ally in Asia, and decided to send an embassy to Uzun Hasan, who was married to a daughter of Calo Johannes, one of the last Emperors of Trebizond. Another daughter of the same emperor had married 1 Vide Travels of Venetians In Persia, edited by the Hakluyt Society.